The public sector effort continues with the goal to create a high-quality, draft genome sequence from reads generated by all sources. The spinning wheel was invented in India, between and AD. Split and merge into it.
Many of our sheets, rugs, and clothes are made from it. Cotton is a hair-like fiber that grows on shrubby, woody plants.
Cotton not only describes this soft fiber, but it can also refer to the plant itself, as well as the crop! In fact, cotton is one of the leading crops in the world! Cotton plants grow white flowers that develop a red tone and fall off. Small green pods called bolls then replace the flowers.
Inside the pods, seed hairs also known as cotton fibers grow. The pods eventually burst, revealing white puff balls cotton! The cotton is now ready to pick. Some cotton is harvested using machines, while other cotton is picked by hand. It takes a lot of work to harvest the cotton, and even more work to spin it into yarn that can be woven into fabric.
The fact that there is so much cotton available makes it possible for us to enjoy our favorite cotton products like clothing and towels at an affordable price. And the comfortable, soothing nature of cotton makes it worth every penny! Take a cotton ball and hold it in both hands. Now squeeze it, making sure you notice its texture with your fingertips. How does it feel? Next, see if you can gently stretch the cotton ball so it gets longer.
There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world. Cotton has gossypol , a toxin that makes it inedible. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making it a potential food crop.
Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton from plants not genetically modified and that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides. This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals, such as herbicides , fertilizers and insecticides , although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production, and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations.
These are popular for baby clothes and diapers. Under most definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering. All natural cotton products are known to be both sustainable and hypoallergenic. Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered Bt cotton which contains a bacterial gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as cotton bollworm and pink bollworm , has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides.
Other significant global pests of cotton include the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella ; the chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis ; the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis ; the tarnish plant bug, Lygus lineolaris ; and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda , Xanthomonas citri subsp.
Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker , a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze.
Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics, and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries.
The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of rayon in France in the s. Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and cannot be considered synthetic, but requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process, and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials.
A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades. Acetate in fiber form was developed in Nylon , the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in , followed by DuPont's acrylic in Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early s that the market for cotton came under threat.
Cotton production recovered in the s, but crashed to pre levels in the early s. Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes ; denim for blue jeans ; cambric , popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts from which we get the term " blue-collar " ; and corduroy , seersucker , and cotton twill.
Socks , underwear , and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process.
While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans. Cotton can be blended also with linen as Linen-cotton blends which give benefit of both plant materials which wrinkle resistant, lightweight, breathable and can keep heat more effectively than only linen.
These blends are thinner and lighter, but stronger than only cotton. In addition to the textile industry , cotton is used in fishing nets , coffee filters , tents , explosives manufacture see nitrocellulose , cotton paper , and in bookbinding.
The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil , which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil.
The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. During the American slavery period, cotton root bark was used in folk remedies as an abortifacient , that is, to induce a miscarriage. Gossypol was one of the many substances found in all parts of the cotton plant and it was described by the scientists as 'poisonous pigment'.
It also appears to inhibit the development of sperm or even restrict the mobility of the sperm. Also, it is thought to interfere with the menstrual cycle by restricting the release of certain hormones. Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species.
Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool". This can also be a refined product absorbent cotton in U. Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits.
Long staple LS cotton is cotton of a longer fibre length and therefore of higher quality, while Extra-long staple cotton ELS cotton has longer fibre length still and of even higher quality. While Pima cotton is often grown in the American southwest [ citation needed ] , the Pima name is now used by cotton-producing nations such as Peru, Australia and Israel. Cotton lisle is a finely-spun, tightly twisted type of cotton that is noted for being strong and durable.
Lisle is composed of two strands that have each been twisted an extra twist per inch than ordinary yarns and combined to create a single thread.
The yarn is spun so that it is compact and solid. This cotton is used mainly for underwear, stockings, and gloves.
Colors applied to this yarn are noted for being more brilliant than colors applied to softer yarn. This type of thread was first made in the city of Lisle, France now Lille , hence its name. The largest producers of cotton, currently , are China and India, with annual production of about 34 million bales and Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China.
In Africa, cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee , is the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia, it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the , small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods.
Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations. This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices.
The five leading exporters of cotton in are 1 the United States , 2 India , 3 Brazil , 4 Australia , and 5 Uzbekistan. The largest nonproducing importers are Korea , Taiwan , Russia , and Japan. In India , the states of Maharashtra In the United States, the state of Texas led in total production as of ,  while the state of California had the highest yield per acre. Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries.
On 8 September , the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic users and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures.
In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production. The Environmental Justice Foundation has campaigned against the prevalent use of forced child and adult labor in cotton production in Uzbekistan , the world's third largest cotton exporter.
The fair trade system was initiated in with producers from Cameroon , Mali and Senegal. Cotton is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity on 2 different commodity exchanges in the United States of America. Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration. Egypt has a unique climatic temperature that the soil and the temperature provide an exceptional environment for cotton to grow rapidly.
There is a public effort to sequence the genome of cotton. It was started in by a consortium of public researchers. The consortium agreed to first sequence the D-genome wild relative of cultivated cotton G. It has nearly one-third of the bases of tetraploid cotton, and each chromosome occurs only once.
Its genome is roughly twice that of G. After both diploid genomes are assembled, they would be used as models for sequencing the genomes of tetraploid cultivated species. Without knowing the diploid genomes, the euchromatic DNA sequences of AD genomes would co-assemble, and their repetitive elements would assemble independently into A and D sequences respectively.
There would be no way to untangle the mess of AD sequences without comparing them to their diploid counterparts.
The public sector effort continues with the goal to create a high-quality, draft genome sequence from reads generated by all sources. The effort has generated Sanger reads of BACs, fosmids, and plasmids, as well as reads. These later types of reads will be instrumental in assembling an initial draft of the D genome. In , the companies Monsanto and Illumina completed enough Illumina sequencing to cover the D genome of G.
This public relations effort gave them some recognition for sequencing the cotton genome. Once the D genome is assembled from all of this raw material, it will undoubtedly assist in the assembly of the AD genomes of cultivated varieties of cotton, but much work remains. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cotton disambiguation. Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium barbadense Gossypium arboreum Gossypium herbaceum.
Mughal Empire and Muslin trade in Bengal. Economic history of India. History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Calico Acts and Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. List of cotton diseases. For the British film, see Cotton Wool. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cotton" Archived 3 September at the Wayback Machine. Based on archaeological evidence, preserved cotton fabric has been found in Harappa, Chanbu-daro in Pakistan Rakhigiri and Lothal in India.
Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead". Journal of Archaeological Science. A History of India. Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past. Indus Project Occasional Paper 3 series. Sauer, Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster , Routledge , p. Kiva, the Journal of Southwest Anthropology and History. Retrieved 9 April Textiles of Southeast Asia: The International Cotton Trade. Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America.
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Around 90% of the organic cotton grown in the US now comes from the 35 or so farmers who make up this group. “This is about the perfect place to grow organic cotton,” says Kelly Pepper of the TOCMC. Although cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world, most people in developing countries receive a low price for their cotton. The top ten Cotton producers in the world are: China, India, United States, Pakistan, Brazil, Uzbekistan, Australia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,and Syria. Cotton cloth comes from cotton crops, which are planted in the spring. The crops grow through the spring and summer, and the cotton fibers are harvested in the fall by machines. The harvested fibers are baled and stored until they’e ready to be ginned. At the gin, the bales are all cleaned and the cotton is separated from dirt and other debris.